Dynasty's



Au Lac Reign
Reigner : Thuc Phan (An Dzuong Vuong)
Period :
Reign's Titles :-
Country's Name :Au Lac
Capital :Co Loa
Contemporary Chinese Dynasty:Qin (361- 206BC)

History :
In the 3rd century BC, the Van Lang State was declining slowly and was defeated in 257 BC by Au Viet tribe resided north of Van Lang. Thuc Phan, head of Au Viet, then unified the two tribes and two countries into one, established a new state - the Au Lac and proclaimed himself as An Dzuong Vuong. The capital of new state was at Co Loa (now Dong Anh dist. Hanoi). In 218 BC, the Chinese Qin Dynasty sent its 500,000 soldiers troop to invade the Au Lac and occupied the country. The Au Lac people under the leadership of Thuc Phan, had led an endure struggle against the Qin for 10 years and won at last. Recovered the country, Thuc Phan started to build the Co Loa Citadel with 9 large earthen ramparts constructed in a maze-like shape resembling the spirals of a snail, for defence purpose. With the citadel and some kind of new weapon, Au Lac was a military power at the time.
That time was at the early Iron Age in Vietnam, the people of Au Lac could mould some tools and weapons from Iron ore, but most of them were made from bronze. The agriculture stepped fowards with using buffalo in ploughing soil. The pottery was still primitive but better in baking treatment. Bricks and tiles were used in construction.
The administration system was similar the Kings Hung era : the country divided into 15 Bo (area) and under Bo were communes. King was on top, owned all the country, land, sea, etc., commanded army and appointed the positions, while Lac Tuong headed Bo and Bo Chinh led commune. The commoners were productive force, they cultivated and paid a rent for the rulers. They had also other duties to the commune and country including service in army. The slaves were the lowest rank in society.


Famous Names of the Reign :

Chao ( Chinese ) Domination
Reigner :Chao Ta (207 BC - 136 BC) / Chao Ho (136BC-124BC) / Chao An Ti (124BC-112BC)/ Chao H'shing(112BC-112BC) / Chao Shin T'su(112BC-111BC) .
Period :
Reign's Titles :-
Country's Name : Au Lac prov. of Nan Yueh
Capital :-
Contemporary Chinese Dynasty:Han (206 BC - 220 AD)

History :
Chao Ta, in the chaos of Qin's situation, attempted to become an Emperor, had occupied the south of China and founded the Nan Yueh State , bordering the Au Lac. Many times, Chao invaded Au Lac but failed for Au Lac had a strong military force, solid Co Loa citadel and better weapons. In a well-prepared spy action, Chao got all Au Lac military secrets in hand and quickly defeated King An Dzuong. In 207 BC, after conquering the Au Lac, Ta annexed it to Nan Yueh and dominated Au Lac for almost 100 years with five reigns. In 111 BC, Chao was defeated by Han and Nan Yueh then was annexed to Han, re-named Chiao Chih.

Famous Names of the Reign :
Chao Ta, in the chaos of Qin's situation, attempted to become an Emperor, had occupied the south of China and founded the Nan Yueh State, bordering the Au Lac. Many times, Chao invaded Au Lac but failed for Au Lac had a strong military force, solid Co Loa citadel and better weapons. In a well-prepared spy action, Chao got all Au Lac military secrets in hand and quickly defeated King An Dzuong. In 207 BC, after conquering the Au Lac, Ta annexed it to Nan Yueh and dominated Au Lac for almost 100 years with five reigns. In 111 BC, Chao was defeated by Han and Nan Yueh then was annexed to Han, re-named Chiao Chih.


Han (Chinese) Domination
Reigner :Chinese Governors
Period :
Reign's Titles :-
Country's Name :Chiao Chih under Han
Capital :-
Contemporary Chinese Dynasty:Han (East) (206 BC - 9 AD) / Hsin (9-23) / Later Han (23-220) .

History :
Following the Chao, Han Dynasty of China took the domination of former Au Lac in 111 BC. The territory of Au Lac was comprised in 3 districts of Chiao Chih province, each ruled by a Chinese mandarin while the old system of low er rank rulers of Lac Hau , Lac Tuong were kept unchanged.Viet people had to pay tributes and many kind of taxes to the Hans. The Chinese mandarins tried to occupy the area of land and changed them into Chinese farms with Chinese peasants immigrated. But the imposition of a foreign administrative system and the Sinicization was not easy, numerous sporadic uprisings and rebellions are testimony to Viet strong resistance. In 40 AD, a rebellion of Trung Sisters (Trung Trac and Trung Nhi) took place and swept out the Han. Trung Trac became the Queen of the Independent Viet. The Capital was in Me Linh (now Phu Tho). But the State of Trung could'nt last very long, in 41AD, the Han sent their 200,000 soldiers troop to re-invade and after two years of brave resistance,the Trung Sisters were defeated in 43 AD.
After the collapsing of Trung Vuong, the Han rejected the system of Lac Hau, Lac Tuong and reinforced the administration with Hans. They forced Viet people to follow Han laws, Han way of living and immigrated vast numbers of Han people into Viet country, taught Han language in an attempt of Sinicization of Viet.The domination was very brutal with higher taxes and tributes. However, the Han also introduced Chinese writing, Confucianism,science , medicine, architecture and many other cultural aspects etc. The scholars and religious travellers also brought Buddhism,Taoism and the civil code of Confucianism to Viet people. In the 2nd century AD, many Buddhist pagodas were constructed in Luy Lau (Bac Ninh). These facts of Chinese civilization imprinted the northern Vietnamese so profoundly that it became a central factor in their complex make-up.
On that period, the Iron technology was prosperous in Viet country. The Viet got their know-how of moulding weapons, tools,gatgets from Iron. The agriculture reached a higher step for using iron ploughshare and buffalos and constructing canal system. There were two rice crops each year. Many kinds of fruit-trees and industrial trees were grew up.
The handicrafts also developed, apart from traditional pottery and weave, metallurgy, the technology of paper, glassware, and juwellery were transferred from China and quickly settled in Vietnam. In the 3rd century, the Viet even exported their paper to Roman country.
Along with the development of economy, the system of trade also spread all over country with all kind of markets.But the foreign trade was limited by the Hans.
The art of that time showed a mixture between the traditional and imported Chinese arts.


Famous Names of the Reign :
+ Trung Sisters and their woman-generals were the famous warriors . In a very short time, Trungs and their troop, almost a half were women, swept out the skilled, atrocious Han expeditionary corps, occupied 63 citadels and forts and founded an independent state. Being defeated by Hans, Trung Sisters commited suicide by sank themselves into Hat Giang River in 43 AD, the 2nd month of Lunar.


East Wu (Chinese) Domination
Reigner :Chinese Governors
Period :
Reign's Titles : -
Country's Name :Chiaozhou under Wu
Capital :-
Contemporary Chinese Dynasty:Three Kingdoms

History :
The East Han Dynasty collapsed in 220 and China was divided by three kingdoms : North Wei,West Shu and East Wu. Chiao Chih was under East Wu control and re-named Chiaozhou. The domination of the East Wu was very harsh and evocked many hatred among the Viet people. In 248, a rebellion led by Trieu Thi Trinh, a young girl-hero, rose up in a mountain region (now Thanh Hoa) and swept -down most of Chiaozhou territory in 6 months. She establihed a new Viet government to rule the country after wiping out the Wu. Her warriors were the Wu's panic. But the Wu's force was much stronger than her peasant troop, especially after reinforcing troop of Wu came from China and the rebellion was defeated after the ferocious battles. Ba (Ms.)Trieu was killed on the last battle at the age of 23.The independent state of Viet collapsed.

Famous Names of the Reign :
+ Ba (Ms.) Trieu was a National Hero , a military commander, a leader of Viet people of that time.


Chinese Domination from 280 to 543
Reigner :Chinese Governors
Period :
Reign's Titles :-
Country's Name :Chiaozhou under West Tsin / East Tsin / Song / Tse/ S'ung .
Capital :-
Contemporary Chinese Dynasty:West /East Tsin (281 -420) / Song (421- 479) / Tse (480 - 505)/ S'ung (506 -570) .

History :
Although the Dynasties in China succeeded each to another in almost 300 years, but the situation in Chiaozhou kept unchanged. The Chinese sent their mandarins to rule Chiaozhou as Governors .Viet people had to pay tributes and taxes, labours to Chinese Dynasties. Many aspects of Chinese culture infiltrated into Viet life, religion, belief, etc. The economy and and society were low-developed.

Sui (Chinese) Domination
Reigner :Chinese Governors
Period :
Reign's Titles :-
Country's Name :Chiaozhou under Sui
Capital :-
Contemporary Chinese Dynasty:Sui (589 - 618)

History :
Chiaozhou under Sui Dynasty comprised from 3 districts, now they are : Red river delta provinces, Thanh Hoa, and Nghe An - Ha Tinh. The capital city of Chiaozhou was in Tong Binh (Hanoi now). The Sui lasted in 618 and the Tang Dynasty succeeded to control Chiaozhou.

Tang (Chinese) Domination
Reigner :Chinese Governors
Period :
Reign's Titles :-
Country's Name :-
Capital :-
Contemporary Chinese Dynasty:Tang (618 - 906)

History :
In 671, the Tang re-established Chiaozhou into 12 zhou (small provinces),59 districts under Department of Annam Domination (DAD) . The Chinese rulers kept the administration of zhou and districts up. The DAD headquarter was in Tong Binh (Hanoi) with a big garrison. Beside the annual tributes, people had to pay many kinds of tax on capitation, family,production etc. Taxes were very high. However, agriculture and handicraft achieved certain developments for importing new technologies from China, India.The highly developed Tang culture also influenced strongly Vietnamese, the Tang opened many schools teaching Chinese scripts and culture. Buddhism took a very important role in society, the monks were also teachers, doctors, advisers, etc.
But the Tang's rule was so harsh, brutal that many uprisings had been broken out along that period. Most noticeable were :
Mai Hac De (Mai the Black Emperor) (722) : Mai Thuc Loan was born in a poor peasant family,and was very famous for his strength, intelligence and the black complexion. In 722, being one of porters who were exhausting in transportation of Lychee fruites to Tang Emperor 's favourite concubine Yang Kuei-fei, Mai called for a rebellion and was warmly responded by the people. The rebels swept out the Tang from Vietnam and proclaimed Mai Thuc Loan Black Emperor, capital was in Van An (now Nghe An). But Mai Hac De could'nt stop the 100,000 soldiers of Tang reinforcing troop and had to shrink into the jungle and died there for a jungle disease. His son succeeded the father for a short time and was known as Mai Thieu De (Juvenile Emperor). The rebellion was collapsed not long after.
Bo Cai Dai Vuong (Emperor the Great Father) (791 -802) : Phung Hung, a local official and son of a former Mai Hac De's warrior, was very famous for kind-hearted and strength (he once killed a tiger to save a life of a man). In 766, he risen up a rebellion against the Tang's rule and resisted for 25 years until he could attack the headquarter of Tang troop in Hanoi and occupied the citadel after 7 days of fierce battles,in 791. The Tangs had to run away. Phung Hung got on throne in Hanoi and was honoured Bo Cai Dai Vuong by people. Phung Hung ruled the country for 7 years until he died in 799.His son, Phung An, succeeded to throne and ruled until 802 when he was defeated by Tang army.
Khuc Thua Du (905 - 907): He was a rich man, admired by people for good-natured. The Tang's tyranized rule made him to call for an uprising. His army swept out the Tangs in 905 and his demand of being Governor of Vietnam was accepted by the Tang Dynasty at last. He became the first Vietnamese chaired the seat of Governor.


The Autonomous Period
Reigner :Khuc Thua Du (905-907) /Khuc Hao (907-917) / Khuc Thua My (917-930) /Duong Dinh Nghe (931-938).
Period :
Reign's Titles :-
Country's Name :-
Capital :-
Contemporary Chinese Dynasty:Tang (618 - 906) / The Five Dynasties period (907 - 960)

History :
At the end of the 9th century,the situation of China was unrest, the Tang could'nt control Vietnam as before. Took that chance, Khuc Thua Du, a village notable raised a rebellion in 905, attacked the Tang garrison in Tong Binh (now Hanoi), wiped them out and proclaimed himself Governor, established the autonomous administration .The Tang was reluctant to admit the position. This was very important step to the independence. He died 2 years after and Khuc Hao, his son, replaced the father to seat the position.He applied many progressive policies, re-arranged the administration system with 5 local hierarchy. At the time the situation had changed in China : Tang Dynasty collapsed and the south of China fragmented into ten independent states, among them the Later S'ung Dynasty took control over Annam.The S'ung also accepted Khuc Hao as Governor of Annam and his rule lasted in 917 when he died. Khuc Thua My, his son succeeded the seat under S'ung adoption. In 930, the South Han encroached the S'ung did'nt admit the situation and sent a troop to invade. Khuc Thua My was captured and the Annam now was under ruling of a South Han Governor again.In 931, Duong Dinh Nghe or Dien Nghe, a former general of Khuc's army, lead a rebellion and expelled the South Han from Annam, re-established the autonomy. But the situation ended in 938 when Duong Dinh Nghe was assasinated by Kieu Cong Tien, one of his escorts who coveted the position of Governer. The assasination evocked a hatred of Tien and many uprisings occured after that. Fearful of the people's revenge, Tien entreated the help from the South Han Dynasty and they immediately sent army and navy to invade the Annam again.

Ngo Dynasty
Reigner :Ngo Quyen (Ngo Vuong) (939 - 944) / Duong Tam Kha (Duong Binh Vuong) (944 - 950) / Ngo Xuong Van (Nam Tan Vuong) (950 - 965 ) and Ngo Xuong Ngap (Thien Sach Vuong) (951 - 965).
Period :
Reign's Titles :-
Country's Name :-
Capital :Co Loa (Hanoi)
Contemporary Chinese Dynasty:South Han / South T'chiu / Han An Ti / Later Chou (... - 959 ).

History :
Ngo Quyen was Duong Dinh Nghe's son - in - law and a talented general who commanded a garrison in Chau Ai (now Thanh Hoa) under Duong time. Heard about the assasination, he immediately sent his army to kill Kieu Cong Tien and planned an ambush for the South Han troop. He ordered to lay the wooden poles with sharp spikes on tops in the Bach Dang River mouth at high tide and enticed the South Han ships to pass the site into an ambush. Being fiercely attacked from the ambush at the time of low tide, the ships tried to sail away and most of them were pierced and sank.The South Han lost most of their navy and had to stop the invation. This was The First Bach Dang Victory in 938. A new era opened to Vietnam nation : the era of independence from Chinese Dynasties.
In 939, Ngo Quyen ascended the throne, named Ngo Vuong (King Ngo), settled the capital at Co Loa (now Hanoi), established an independent state of Annam.In his primitive administration system, the King was on top and himself decided everything. The court was very simple with two groups of officials : military and civil. Only the important region would be ruled by governors appointed by the King. The society under his reign was peaceful. He died in 944.
After Ngo Quyen's death, his brother - in - law Duong Tam Kha usurped the throne,proclaimed himself Duong Binh Vuong and ruled from 944 to 950.
In 950, Ngo Xuong Van, the younger son of Ngo Quyen staged a coup against Duong Binh Vuong.He crowned as Nam Tan Vuong and sent the envoys to find his older brother, Ngo Xuong Ngap, escaped from Duong Court in 944 and hid in the countryside. In 951, Ngo Xuong Ngap also crowned as Thien Sach Vuong, and there were two Kings co-ruled Vietnam that period.
From 944, the situation of the Ngo Dynasty had became unstable, many rebellions risen everywhere to claim to the territory. The wars between Ngo and the lords had prolonged almost 20 years. In one of the such battles in 965, Nam Tan Vuong was killed and Ngo Dynasty collapsed, the country was fractioned into 12 regions with 12 warlords ruled.


Famous Names of the Reign :
+ Ngo Quyen was confered as National Hero, who opened an era of independence for Vietnam nation. His victory on South Han in Bach Dang is one of the most glorious in the Vietnam history .



Dinh Dynasty
Reigner :Dinh Bo Linh (968 - 979) / Dinh Toan (979 - 980) .
Period :
Reign's Titles :Thai Binh / Thai Binh .
Country's Name :Dai Co Viet
Capital :Hoa Lu
Contemporary Chinese Dynasty:Sung Dynasty (960 - 1279)

History :
The war between 12 warlords reached its top in the period of 966 - 968, leaving the hardships and misery in the life of people. Dinh Bo Linh, adopted son of Lord Tran Lam, who ruled the region of Bo Hai Khau (now Thai Binh), had succeeded Lam after his death and suppressed successfully the other 11 warlords in 968, took control over the country. In the same year, Dinh Bo Linh ascended the throne, proclaimed himself Dinh Tien Hoang De (The First Emperor of Dinh) and named the country Dai Co Viet , settled the Capital at Hoa Lu (now Ninh Binh). He also confered the most important titles of the Court : Nam Viet Vuong (King of Nam Viet) on his elder son, Dinh Lien, and Thap Dao Tuong Quan - General of Ten Corps (means Commander - in - Chief) on Le Hoan, a talented general of the Court. In the Dinh reigns, the King kept in his hand utmost power in politics, military, law, religion. Two officials assisting him were : Thai Su (highest rank in the court), Dai Su (a famous Buddhist monk). There were 3 groups of officials : Civil, Military and Religious (Buddhism only). The country was divided into 10 Lo (prov.). Lo comprised of Phu and Chau (dist. and region). But only the important areas were ruled by officials from the Court . The army was also divided into central and local. The economy based on agriculture but handicrafts were also encouraged, many working sites opened in Hoa Lu for weapon making, weaving, minting, ship-building,etc.. Many palaces and pagodas were constructed in that time.The basic unit of Dinh society was village, in which the land was common property that peasants could rent, and pay tax and responsible to fulfil duty toward the King. The education was not developed. Most of the literate persons were Buddhist monks and they were the advisors for the court and the common people also. The Buddhism was very venerated. The crimes were treated seriously in the Dinh reign.
In 979, Dinh Tien Hoang and Dinh Lien were assassinated by Do Thich, an eunuch and the younger son of Dinh Tien Hoang, Dinh Toan succeeded the throne at his 6 age.
Took this chance, the Sung Dynasty in China sent their army to invade Dai Co Viet in 981. On the difficult situation of the country, Queen-Mother Duong Van Nga decided to pass the throne to Thap Dao Tuong Quan Le Hoan, incompliance with the Court's requirement. During one month from ascending the throne, Le Hoan stopped both navy and infantry of Sung by fierce battles in Chi Lang river (now Lang Son) and Tay Ket, captured alive both general-commanders of two these troops, broke the attempt to invade of the Sungs. By this victory, the Vietnamese had affirmed national sovereignty.


Famous Names of the Reign :
+ Dinh Bo Linh, son of general in Duong Dinh Nghe Court, was very intelligent and brave boy at his childhood. His father died soon and he had to pasture buffalo for living. When on the field with the other boys, he used to order them to carry him onto their arms to march as if he was King, in the game of battle. Grew up in the chaos situation, witnessing the people's misery, he soon became desirous of stopping it and himself established a military troop for that purpose. With the troop, he attended Lord Tran Lam's force and became his most close assistant, then adopted son.

+ Duong Van Nga, wife of Dinh Bo Linh, was another noticeable character of the period. Being juvenile Empweror's mother, she was brave to pass the throne to Le Hoan in the situation of a coming invation. However,later she became Le Hoan's wife.